What is type 3 diabetes? – DIABETIC SOCK CLUB

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What is type 3 diabetes?

Do you know what type 3 diabetes is? Type 3 diabetes exists, and you may not be aware of it because you are only familiar with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Type 3 diabetes is a term that has been proposed to describe the hypothesis that Alzheimer's disease is triggered by a kind of insulin resistance insulin-like growth factor dysfunction that occurs specifically in the brain. Although health associations do not classify type 3 diabetes as an official form of diabetes, it is a term that has been proposed to describe the hypothesis that Alzheimer's disease is triggered by a type of insulin resistance insulin-like growth factor dysfunction that occurs specifically in the brain.


Some people have also used this term to represent persons who have type 2 diabetes and have been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease dementia or people who have type 2 diabetes and have developed Alzheimer's disease. Because it is highly controversial, type 3 diabetes is not universally recognized as a clinical condition by the medical profession. This should shed additional light on why patients with type 2 diabetes are more prone to Alzheimer's disease.


Type 3 diabetes is distinct from type 3c diabetes mellitus, often known as T3cDM or pancreaticogenic diabetes. Type 3c occurs when the pancreas stops producing enough insulin for the body to operate appropriately. Insulin is necessary for our bodies to function correctly and to fuel them. Your pancreas will cease generating the enzyme you need to digest food if you have type 3c diabetes. Although both types of diabetes contain the number "3" in their names, they are distinct diseases that affect separate regions of our bodies.


The link between Alzheimer's and diabetes


According to the Mayo Clinic report, a relationship exists between type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. They believe that type 3 diabetes develops as neurons in the brain lose their ability to respond to insulin, which is required for essential functions such as memory and learning. According to some experts, insulin deficit has also been linked to Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's disease is sometimes referred to as "brain diabetes."


If diabetes is not treated and blood sugar levels are not maintained at a healthy level, blood vessels, including blood vessels in the brain, can be damaged. Many persons with type 2 diabetes are unaware that they have the disease, which can delay diagnosis and treatment. As a result, people with type 2 diabetes, particularly untreated diabetes, are more susceptible to this type of injury.


Diabetes can produce chemical imbalances in the brain, which can contribute to Alzheimer's disease, and high blood sugar levels can promote inflammation, which can harm brain cells. Diabetes is considered a risk factor for vascular dementia because of these factors. This occurs when the blood vessels in your brain are affected by conditions that influence your memory, behavior, and thinking. It can present with its symptoms or be a precursor to Alzheimer's disease overlap.


Symptoms of type 3 diabetes


Because "type 3 diabetes" is not an official categorization, doctors do not use it as a diagnostic word. Physical and mental testing, neurological exams, and brain imaging can all be used to identify Alzheimer's disease.


Type 3 diabetes symptoms are similar to dementia symptoms, such as those reported in early Alzheimer's disease.


  • Memory loss has a detrimental influence on everyday life
  • Having difficulty solving problems or creating plans
  • Trouble performing routine chores
  • Uncertainty about time or location
  • Having difficulty comprehending and using written and spoken language
  • Misplacing items
  • Reduced judgment
  • Withdrawal from social or professional activities
  • Changes in mood and personality

It's also worth noting that aging might bring about changes in memory and habits. However, if you are concerned about any changes you've noticed or are experiencing some of the symptoms listed above, you should speak with your doctor and seek advice.


Causes of type 3 diabetes 


According to a 2008 article stating that the term "type 3 diabetes" appropriately reflects Alzheimer's disease is a type of diabetes that affects the brain. Changes in the brain occur when you have type 3 diabetes. They explained and demonstrated how this happens using human and animal studies.


Alzheimer's disease is a neuroendocrine disease characterized by decreased insulin and insulin-growth-like factor (IGF) signaling, according to researchers. Inflammation and oxidative stress are also possible symptoms. When your antioxidant levels are low, you experience oxidative stress. Obesity and type 2 diabetes may contribute to the development of Alzheimer's disease, but they are not sufficient causes in and of themselves, according to scientists.


People with type 2 diabetes are up to 60% more likely to develop Alzheimer's disease or another type of dementia, such as vascular dementia, according to a 2016 American Diabetes Association (ADA) article. This study included almost 100,000 patients with dementia. According to the study, women with type 2 diabetes had a higher risk of vascular dementia than men. Here are some risk factors for type 2 diabetes:


  • Diabetes runs in the family
  • blood pressure problems (hypertension)
  • Obesity or being overweight
  • depression and polycystic ovarian syndrome are examples of chronic health disorders (PCOS)

However, a new study reveals that insulin-degrading enzymes may disrupt metabolic pathways, causing type 2 diabetes to progress to type 3. This mechanism could cause oxidative stress and beta-amyloid buildup in the brain, which are symptoms of Alzheimer's disease.


The potential risk factors for acquiring type 3 diabetes are listed in a 2020 article. Among them are:


  • a low-fiber diet heavy in calories, sugar, and fat
  • socioeconomic disadvantage
  • exposed to anxiety
  • ethnicity and race
  • insufficient physical activity
  • genetics
  • family background
  • weight at birth

According to the same study, elevated blood pressure and impaired lipid or fat transportation play a role in Alzheimer's disease progression.


Additionally, having the APOE4 gene can increaseTrusted Source a person's risk of the condition. 


Diagnosis of type 3 diabetes 


There is no specific test that will identify if you have type 3 diabetes, but there is a diagnosis for Alzheimer's disease that is based on:


  • a neurological examination
  • medical history
  • neurophysiological testing

Your healthcare professional will inquire about your family history and any recent symptoms you've been having. MRI and CT scans of the head can provide your healthcare professional with a picture of how your brain functions.


This will help determine whether your brain is still healthy or if there are changes in your brain that are not normal. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing can also look for indicators of Alzheimer's. CSF is a clear, colorless liquid found in your brain and spinal cord. 


Suppose you have type 2 diabetes or Alzheimer's disease symptoms but haven't been diagnosed with either. In that case, your healthcare provider may conduct a fasting blood sugar test and a glycated hemoglobin test, and if you have type 2 diabetes, it's recommended to start treatment right once. Type 2 diabetes treatment may reduce damage to your body, including your brain, and may decrease the progression of Alzheimer's disease or dementia.


Treatment for type 2 diabetes


People with pre-type 2 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease have different treatment options. Your doctor may advise you to make lifestyle adjustments, such as modifying your food and integrating exercise into your daily routine. These can benefit your body and are vital in your therapy.


A low-fat, high-fiber diet rich in fruits and vegetables can help you feel better, and quitting smoking and drinking is recommended if you smoke and drink. Tobacco and alcohol use can harm your organs and worsen your situation. According to a 2014 article, anti-diabetes medicines metformin and insulin may lessen the chance of developing diabetes-induced brain damage.


Prescription drugs are available to treat Alzheimer's dementia symptoms, but it's unclear if they have a significant impact on the symptoms of the disease.


Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors such as donepezil (Aricept), galantamine (Razadyne), and rivastigmine (Exelon) can help your body's cells communicate more effectively. An NMDA-receptor antagonist, memantine (Namenda), may also help lessen symptoms and halt the progression of Alzheimer's disease.


Psychotropic medicines may treat various symptoms of Alzheimer's and other dementia types, such as mood swings and sadness. In some circumstances, antidepressants and anti-anxiety drugs are prescribed.


Later in the dementia process, some persons may require a low-dose antipsychotic medication.

If you have type 2 diabetes or Alzheimer's disease, your healthcare professional will tell you which medications to drink and avoid.


Prevention


If you have already been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, there are ways you can better manage it and lower your risk of developing type 3 diabetes or Alzheimer's. Here are some proven methods of how you can manage your type 2 diabetes:


  • Exercising four times per week for 30 minutes per day.
  • Eating healthy foods low in saturated fat, rich in protein, and high in fiber.
  • Carefully monitor your blood sugar according to your healthcare provider's recommendations. It is best to maintain your blood sugar at a healthy level or according to what your healthcare recommends.
  • Take prescribed medications on schedule and with regularity.
  • Monitor your cholesterol levels.
  • Maintain your healthy weight.

According to the National Institute on Aging, there is a piece of encouraging but inconclusive evidence that may help prevent or delay type 3 diabetes or Alzheimer's disease. These includes:


  • increasing physical activity
  • monitoring blood pressure
  • doing cognitive training

An article also has explored curcumin, a ketogenic diet, and antioxidants as potential therapeutic agents, but studies have been inconclusive so far.

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